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Harmful effects of free radicals

Antioxidants actually defined as inhibitors that inhibit oxidation by reacting with reactive free radicals to form reactive free radicals was relatively stable. But on the free radicals associated with the disease, would be more appropriate if the antioxidant is defined as compounds that protect cells from the harmful effects of reactive oxygen free radicals.

Harmful effects of free radicals

free radicals play a role of various diseases. This is because free radicals are chemical species that has a lone pair of electrons in the outer shell so that very reactive and can react with proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, or DNA. The reaction between free radicals and molecules that lead to the emergence of a disease.

Oxidative effects of free radicals can cause inflammation and premature aging. That should keep the skin lipids to keep them fresh turn into lipid peroxides react with free radicals because of accelerating aging. Cancer was caused by reactive oxygen species that essentially spurred a carcinogenic substance, as the main factors of cancer. In addition, reactive oxygen can raise levels of LDL (low density lipoprotein), which later became the cause of accumulation of cholesterol in the blood vessel walls. As a result arises or better known atherosclerotic coronary heart disease. In addition, decreased blood supply due to obstruction or ischemic vascular and Parkinson's disease suffered by Muhammad Ali also caused by pathological free radicals.

This type of reactive oxygen derived free radicals in the body is very significant. These reactive oxygen species include superoxide (O `2), hydroxyl (OH '), peroksil (Roo`), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), singlet oxygen (O2), nitric oxide (NO `), peroksinitrit (ONOO') and acidic hypochlorite (HOCl).

Source of free radicals

Source of free radicals, both endogenous and exogenous occurs through a series of reaction mechanism. The first is the early formation of free radicals (initiation), and propagation or the formation of new radicals (propagation), and the last stage (termination), the destruction or alteration becomes a free radical is stable and not reactive.

Explanations about the source of endogenous free radicals vary widely. Endogenous sources can pass through autoxidation, enzymatic oxidation, phagocytosis in respiration, electron transport in mitochondria, oxidation of transition metal ions, or via the ischemic. Autoxidation is a compound containing a double bond, hydrogen alilik, benzylic or tertiary are susceptible to oxidation by air. Examples of fat that produces Butanoic acid, after reacting with a rancid-smelling air. Enzymatic oxidation produces acid oxidant hypochlorite. Where approximately 70-90% consumption of O2 by phagocytic cells transformed into superoxide and together with the `OH H2O2 and HOCl formed with the aid of bacteria. Oxygen in the electron transport system receives an electron to form superoxide. Transition metal ions, namely Co and Fe to facilitate the production of singlet oxygen and `OH radical formation through the Haber-Weiss reaction: H2O2 + Fe2 + ->` OH + OH-+ Fe3 +. Briefly, xantin oxide during ischemic produce superoxide and xantin. Xantin experiencing causing further production of uric acid.

While exogenous source of free radicals which come from outside the body systems, including UV light. UVB rays stimulate melanocytes to produce excess melanin in the skin, which not only makes your skin darker, but also the black spots. UVA rays damage the skin by penetrating the basal layer that cause wrinkles.

Classification of antioxidants

To meet the needs of antioxidants, we need to know before categorization antioxidant itself. Antioxidants are divided into antioxidant enzymes and vitamins. Antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GSH.Prx). More popular antioxidant vitamins as antioxidants compared enzymes. Antioxidant vitamins include alpha tocopherol (vitamin E), beta carotene and ascorbic acid (vitamin C).

Superoxide dismutase plays a role in fighting free radicals in mitochondria, cytoplasm and aerobic bacteria with reduced forms of superoxide free radicals. SOD orgoteina pure form of peptide-called anti-inflammatory agent. SOD will work more actively with the poliferon obtained from tea consumption. Enzyme that converts hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen is catalase. Functions neutralize toxic hydrogen peroxide and prevent the formation of CO2 bubbles in the blood.

Antioxidant glutathione peroxidase works by moving the H2O2 and lipid peroxide assisted with transition metals ions. GSH.Prx containing Se. Se sources exist in fish, eggs, chicken, garlic, wheat, corn, rice, and vegetables that grow in soil that is rich in Se. After a too high dose toxic.

Vitamin E is believed to be a source of antioxidants that work to prevent lipid peroxidation of unsaturated fatty acids in the cell membrane and oxidation of vitamin A also helps maintain fertility. Vitamin E is stored in adipose tissue and can be obtained from vegetable oil, especially oil bean sprouts, wheat, nuts, seeds, and green vegetables.

As an antioxidant, beta carotene is the main source of vitamin A which is largely present in plants. In addition to protecting fruits and vegetables, dark yellow or green from dangerous solar radiation, beta carotene is also a similar role in humans. Beta-carotene contained in carrots, broccoli, potatoes, and tomatoes.

Antioxidants derived from animal sources, although a minority contributor but its role can not be neglected just like that. It is surprising that there are at relatively carotene astaxanthin. According to experts, astaxanthin 1000 times more powerful as antioxidants than vitamin E. Shrimp, salmon, shellfish potansial source of astaxanthin. But the highest astaxanthin content exist in a kind of microalgae, namely Haematococos pluvalis. Astaxanthinnya protects algae from environmental changes such as high UV photo oxidation and evaporation. This antioxidant activity against lipid peroxide work and danger as well as UV oxidation of LDL cholesterol, and help eyesight, the immune response, reproduction and pigmentation of the algae.

While easily oxidized ascorbic acid into dehydroascorbic acid. Thus, vitamin C also plays a role in inhibiting excessive oxidation reactions in the body by acting as antioxidants. Vitamin C contained in green vegetables and fruits.

In addition to the above classification of antioxidants, there are also other compounds that can replace vitamin E, namely flavonoids. This was stated by the Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University. Flavonoids are polyphenol compounds found in tea, fruits, vegetables, wine, beer and ketchup. The antioxidant activity of flavonoids depends on its molecular structure, especially clusters prenil (CH3) 2C = CH-CH2-. In the study showed that the flavonoid group prenil developed for prevention or treatment of diseases associated with free radicals.
From the explanation above, at least we have been able to find various sources of antioxidants follows why antioxidants needed for good health. Prevention is much better than curation, however. So start by taking care of health from food and beverages that we consume every day.



The especial province of the mother is the prevention of disease, not its cure. When disease attacks the child, the mother has then a part to perform, which it is especially important during the epochs of infancy and childhood should be done well. I refer to those duties which constitute the maternal part of the management of disease.

Medical treatment, for its successful issue, is greatly dependent upon a careful, pains-taking, and judicious maternal superintendence. No medical treatment can avail at any time, if directions be only partially carried out, or be negligently attended to; and will most assuredly fail altogether, if counteracted by the erroneous prejudices of ignorant attendants. But to the affections of infancy and childhood, this remark applies with great force; since, at this period, disease is generally so sudden in its assaults, and rapid in its progress, that unless the measures prescribed are rigidly and promptly administered, their exhibition is soon rendered altogether fruitless.

The amount of suffering, too, may be greatly lessened by the thoughtful and discerning attentions of the mother. The wants and necessities of the young child must be anticipated; the fretfulness produced by disease, soothed by kind and affectionate persuasion; and the possibility of the sick and sensitive child being exposed to harsh and ungentle conduct, carefully provided against.

Again, not only is a firm and strict compliance with medical directions in the administration of remedies, of regimen, and general measures, necessary, but an unbiased, faithful, and full report of symptoms to the physician, when he visits his little patient, is of the first importance. An ignorant servant or nurse, unless great caution be exercised by the medical attendant, may, by an unintentional but erroneous report of symptoms, produce a very wrong impression upon his mind, as to the actual state of the disease. His judgment may, as a consequence, be biased in a wrong direction, and the result prove seriously injurious to the welldoing of the patient. The medical man cannot sit hour after hour watching symptoms; hence the great importance of their being faithfully reported. This can alone be done by the mother, or some person equally competent.

There are other weighty considerations which might be adduced here, proving how much depends upon efficient maternal management in the time of sickness; but they will be severally dwelt upon, when the diseases with which they are more particularly connected are spoken of.